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Tuskegee University Archives Manuscript Collections

Guide to the Papers of the National Committee to Abolish the Poll Tax

ASSET VIEWER
A Guide to the papers at the Tuskegee Libraries and Archives
Author:

Dana R. Chandler

Sponsor:

Arrangement and description of this collection was made possible through a NHPRC-funded collaborative grant with The University of Alabama, "Bringing Alabama's African American History to Light."

Publication:

Tuskegee University Archives

2008Tuskegee University Archives. All rights reserved.

Creation:

Machine-readable finding aid derived from typescript by rekeying Finding aid encoded by Tuskegee University Archives, 06-30-08

Language Usage:

Description is in English

Guide to the Papers of the National Committee to Abolish the Poll Tax, 1940-1948

Tuskegee University Archives 2008 Tuskegee University. All rights reserved.
Processed by:
Dana R. Chandler
Date Completed:
06/30/08
Encoded by:
Dana R. Chandler.

Overview of the Collection

Repository:

Tuskegee University Archives

Creator

Electronic edition created by Dana R. Chandler

extent

size 12.1 Cubic feet 1 Series

Collection Title:

Guide to the Papers of the National Committee to Abolish the Poll Tax

Dates:

1940-1948

Unit ID:

Collection Number 138

Access Restrictions:

Access Restrictions: Collection is unrestricted

Acquisition Information:

Acquisition Information: Tuskegee Archives, Bioethics Building, Tuskegee, Alabama

Usage Restrictions:

Usage Restrictions: Copyright: 2008 Tuskegee University

Preferred Citation:

Preferred Citation: Guide to the Tuskegee Crisis Study, Tuskegee University.

Processing Information:

Processing Information: Processed by Dana R. Chandler:

Completed in 2007

Scope and Content Notes

The collection consists of documents generated or received by The National Committee to Abolish the Poll Tax, 1940-1964. The bulk of the records date between 1942 and 1946; with some dated as early as 1941. They include correspondence, newspaper clippings, articles, pamphlets and other miscellaneous documents. The records are potentially valuable to those interested in researching a history of sociological thought regarding the lives of rural Southern poor and African Americans, Democratic thought and the history of the Civil Rights Movement.

History

1940s-1960s Introduced shortly after the American Revolution, the poll or capitation (head) tax was levied by state and local governments on all male citizens as a required sum that had to be paid before one could vote. Originally adopted by all states, the poll tax became an effective means to disenfranchise both women and minorities from voting. Although several states repealed the original tax, reconstruction in the South saw the advent of the cumulative poll tax which required white and black men between the ages of 21 and 60 years of age to pay a certain sum of money for every year since their twenty-first birthday, or since the law took effect. Often, these laws were amended to require proof that the poll tax had been paid over the entire period prior to voting in current elections. Efforts to repeal such laws were active throughout the 1940s, 1950s and early 1960s. Although the national House of Representatives passed bills repealing the poll tax five times during the 1940s, Senators from certain Southern states continued to filibuster, thereby preventing any ratification by the U.S. Senate. It was not until the Twenty-Fourth Amendment was ratified in 1964 that the poll tax was abolished from national elections. Furthermore, it was not until two years later, because of the landmark case Harper v. Virginia Board of Elections, that state poll taxes were ruled in violation of the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment and subsequently abolished. At the forefront of the efforts to repeal the poll tax was the National Committee to Abolish the Poll Tax (NCAPT), which was formed in 1940 by California Democratic Congressman Lee Geyer in an attempt to secure backing for his Federal anti-poll tax bill. The NCAPT utilized grass-roots campaigns, newsletters, pamphlets and personal letters, and leading social activists in an attempt to repeal the National poll tax. In 1945, they swayed a majority in the House of Representatives to repeal the poll tax, but it would flounder in the Senate until majorities from both houses sought its repeal in the early 1960s. The NCAPT closed and disbanded in the summer of 1948. Key social activists included: Virginia Foster Durr (a founding member of the Southern Conference on Human Welfare. She served as the vice-chairman of the Civil Rights Committee, a subcommittee to abolish the poll tax); Katherine Shryver (Editor and Executive Secretary of The Poll Tax Repealer); Dr. Mary McLeod Bethune (first president and co-founder of Bethune-Cookman University); and Jennings Perry (editor of the Nashville Tennessean). It was through the efforts of individuals such as these and others, that successive generations were emboldened to press further for equal rights for all men and women. Sources: none
Arrangment:

Organized into 1 series. National Committee to Abolish the Poll Tax correspondence, notes, agendas, pamphlets, articles, posters, newspaper clippings, etc. 1941-1948.

Acquisition Information:

Arranged into 1 accession-

138-1-29.

Source(s)

Index Terms

The papers are indexed under the following headings in the Tuskegee University Libraries online catalog. Researchers seeking materials about related subjects, persons, organizations or places should search the catalog using these headings.

Personal Names: Mary Jane McLeod Bethune Louise O. Charlton Theophilus Eugene Conner James A.Dombrowski Virginia Foster Durr Jim Carley Joseph Gelders Rachel Lamar John L. Lewis Lucy Randolph Mason Roberta Morgan Jennings Perry Eleanor Roosevelt Franklin Delano Roosevelt Kathryn Schryver Ed Smith

Corporate Names: National Committee to Abolish the Poll Tax NAACP National Conference on Black Power, Leadership Council on Civil Rights

Subject Names: Poll Tax African American political activists-History, African American-Civil rights-Alabama, African American-Southern States-Economic conditions, African Americans-Southern States-Social conditions, Alabama-Politics and government, Tuskegee (ALa.)-Race relations, Segregation Southern States-Politics and government, United States-Race relations, Voter registration-Alabama, Voting,

Geographic Names: Tuskegee (Ala.),

Series 1. Note to Researchers: To request materials, please note both the location and box numbers shown below.

Components in Detail

Alabama box box 1 folder folder 1

Alabama box box 1 folder folder 2

Arizona box box 1 folder folder 3

Arkansas box box 1 folder folder 4

Arkansas box box 1 folder folder 5

California box box 1 folder folder 6

California box box 1 folder folder 7

California box box 1 folder folder 8

Colorado box box 1 folder folder 9

Colorado box box 1 folder folder 10

Connecticut box box 1 folder folder 11

Connecticut box box 1 folder folder 12

Delaware box box 2 folder folder 1

Delaware box box 2 folder folder 2

District of Columbia box box 2 folder folder 3

District of Columbia box box 2 folder folder 4

District of Columbia box box 2 folder folder 5

District of Columbia box box 2 folder folder 6

District of Columbia box box 2 folder folder 7

Florida box box 2 folder folder 8

Florida box box 2 folder folder 9

Georgia box box 2 folder folder 10

Georgia box box 2 folder folder 11

Idaho box box 3 folder folder 1

Illinois box box 3 folder folder 2

Illinois box box 3 folder folder 3

Indiana box box 3 folder folder 4

Indiana box box 3 folder folder 5

Iowa box box 3 folder folder 6

Iowa box box 3 folder folder 7

Kansas box box 3 folder folder 8

Kentucky box box 3 folder folder 9

Kentucky box box 3 folder folder 10

Louisiana box box 3 folder folder 11

Louisiana box box 3 folder folder 12

Maine box box 4 folder folder 1

Maine box box 4 folder folder 2

Maryland box box 4 folder folder 3

Maryland box box 4 folder folder 4

Massachusetts box box 4 folder folder 5

Massachusetts box box 4 folder folder 6

Michigan box box 4 folder folder 7

Miohigan box box 4 folder folder 8

Minnesota box box 4 folder folder 9

Minnesota box box 4 folder folder 10

Mississippi box box 4 folder folder 11

Mississippi box box 4 folder folder 12

Missouri box box 4 folder folder 13

Missouri box box 4 folder folder 14

Montana box box 4 folder folder 15

Montana box box 4 folder folder 16

Nebraska box box 5 folder folder 1

Nevada box box 5 folder folder 2

Nevada box box 5 folder folder 3

New Hampshire box box 5 folder folder 4

New Hampshire box box 5 folder folder 5

New Jersey box box 5 folder folder 6

New Jersey box box 5 folder folder 7

New Mexico box box 5 folder folder 8

New Mexico box box 5 folder folder 9

New York box box 6 folder folder 1

New York box box 6 folder folder 2

New York box box 6 folder folder 3

New York box box 6 folder folder 4

New York box box 6 folder folder 5

New York box box 6 folder folder 6

New York box box 6 folder folder 7

New York box box 7 folder folder 1

New York box box 7 folder folder 2

New York box box 7 folder folder 3

New York box box 7 folder folder 4

North Carolina box box 7 folder folder 5

North Carolina box box 7 folder folder 6

North Dakota box box 7 folder folder 7

Ohio box box 7 folder folder 8

Ohio box box 7 folder folder 9

Oklahoma box box 7 folder folder 10

Oklahoma box box 7 folder folder 11

Oregon box box 7 folder folder 12

Oregon box box 7 folder folder 13

Pennsylvania box box 8 folder folder 1

Pennsylvania box box 8 folder folder 2

Rhode Island box box 8 folder folder 3

Rhode Island box box 8 folder folder 4

South Carolina box box 8 folder folder 5

South Carolina box box 8 folder folder 6

South Dakota box box 8 folder folder 7

Tennessee box box 8 folder folder 8

Tennessee box box 8 folder folder 9

Tennessee box box 8 folder folder 10

Texas box box 8 folder folder 11

Texas box box 8 folder folder 12

Utah box box 9 folder folder 1

Vermont box box 9 folder folder 2

Virginia box box 9 folder folder 3

Virginia box box 9 folder folder 4

Washington box box 9 folder folder 5

Washington box box 9 folder folder 6

West Virginia box box 9 folder folder 7

Wisconsin box box 9 folder folder 8

Wisconsin box box 9 folder folder 9

Wyoming box box 9 folder folder 10

Foreign box box 9 folder folder 11

Midwest Office (Chicago, Illinois) box box 9 folder folder 12

Personal, Virginia Durr box box 10 folder folder 1

Personal, Sara d'Avila box box 10 folder folder 2

Services box box 10 folder folder 3

Herman Finch and Associates box box 10 folder folder 4

Job Files box box 10 folder folder 5

By Laws box box 10 folder folder 6

Executive Board box box 10 folder folder 7

Abolish Poll Tax Week box box 11 folder folder 1

Miscellaneous, 1941-1943 box box 11 folder folder 2

Virginia Foster Durr, Personal box box 11 folder folder 3

Bender Dinner, 2-24-48 box box 11 folder folder 4

Bender Letter, 2-3-48 box box 11 folder folder 5

Constitutional Amendment box box 11 folder folder 6

Requests for New Handbook box box 11 folder folder 7

Conference 10-45 box box 11 folder folder 8

Conference 10-45 box box 11 folder folder 9

Correspondence- Progressive Party Candidates box box 11 folder folder 10

Press Releases, 1945-1948 box box 12 folder folder 1

Publicity Ideas box box 12 folder folder 2

Clippings, 1947 and 1948 box box 12 folder folder 3

1940 Census Data box box 12 folder folder 4

Economic Data box box 12 folder folder 5

Soldier Voting box box 12 folder folder 6

Primaries box box 12 folder folder 7

Movies or Films, APT box box 13 folder folder 1

Speeches Made, Editorials box box 13 folder folder 2

Speeches, Radio Scripts box box 13 folder folder 3

Speeches, Radio Scripts box box 13 folder folder 4

Speeches, Radio Scripts box box 13 folder folder 5

Elections, 1948 box box 14 folder folder 1

Misc. Articles on Poll Tax, George H. Bender box box 14 folder folder 2

Misc. Articles on Poll Tax, George H. Bender box box 14 folder folder 3

Miscellaneous Articles, Jennings Perry and Others box box 14 folder folder 4

Proceedings, Conference on Anti-Poll Tax Education box box 14 folder folder 5

Bibliographies box box 14 folder folder 6

Proceedings, Conference on Anti-Poll Tax Education box box 14 folder folder 7

History of The National Committee to Repeal the Poll Tax and Photo box box 14 folder folder 8

A.F.I., 1943-1946 box box 15 folder folder 1

Independent Unions box box 15 folder folder 2

Farm Organizations, 1943-1946 box box 15 folder folder 3

Miscellaneous Organizations, 1943-1946 box box 15 folder folder 4

C.I.O., 1943-1946 box box 15 folder folder 5

C.I.O., 1943-1946 box box 15 folder folder 6

C.I.O., 1943-1946 box box 15 folder folder 7

C.I.O., 1943-1946 box box 15 folder folder 8

Church Organizations, 1943-1946 box box 16 folder folder 1

Church Organizations, 1943-1946 box box 16 folder folder 2

Administration, National Political Parties box box 16 folder folder 3

Women's Organizations, 1943-1946 box box 16 folder folder 4

YMCA-YWCA, 1943-1946 box box 16 folder folder 5

Civil Rights Groups, 1943-1946 box box 16 folder folder 6

Negro Organizations box box 16 folder folder 7

Railroad Brotherhoods, 1943-1946 box box 16 folder folder 8

Veteran's Organizations box box 16 folder folder 9

Negro Organizations box box 16 folder folder 10

Index Cards, Boule-Columnists box box 17 folder folder 1

Index Cards, A-Z box box 18 folder folder 1

Index Cards, Newspaper for Press Releases- Members Fairfax, Vir box box 19 folder folder 1

Index Cards, A-Z box box 20 folder folder 1

Mailed Lists Special box box 21 folder folder 1

Mailing Lists Special box box 21 folder folder 2

Money Raising box box 21 folder folder 3

Pre-Paid Mailing Accounts box box 21 folder folder 4

Sponsers box box 21 folder folder 5

Sponsers box box 21 folder folder 6

State Sponser, Suggestions box box 21 folder folder 7

Sponsoring Organizations box box 21 folder folder 8

January 1946, Receipts box box 22 folder folder 1

Receipts, February 1946 box box 22 folder folder 2

Receipts, March 1946 box box 22 folder folder 3

Receipts, April 1946 box box 22 folder folder 4

Receipts, May 1946 box box 22 folder folder 5

Receipts, June 1946 box box 22 folder folder 6

Receipts, July 1946 box box 22 folder folder 7

Receipts, August, September and October 1946 box box 22 folder folder 8

Receipts, January 1947 box box 22 folder folder 9

Receipts, February 1947 box box 22 folder folder 10

Receipts, March 1947 box box 22 folder folder 11

Receipts, April 1947 box box 22 folder folder 12

Receipts, May 1947 box box 22 folder folder 13

Receipts, June 1947 box box 22 folder folder 14

Receipts, July 1947 box box 22 folder folder 15

Receipts, September 1947 box box 22 folder folder 16

Receipts, October 1947 box box 22 folder folder 17

Receipts, November 1947 box box 22 folder folder 18

Receipts, February 1948 box box 22 folder folder 19

Receipts, March 1948 box box 22 folder folder 20

Receipts, April 1948 box box 22 folder folder 21

Receipts, May 1948 box box 22 folder folder 22

Receipts, June 1948 box box 22 folder folder 23

Lobbying Act Forms box box 23 folder folder 1

Field Trips, 1943 box box 23 folder folder 2

Receipts, January 1945 box box 23 folder folder 3

Receipts, February 1945 box box 23 folder folder 4

Receipts, March 1945 box box 23 folder folder 5

Receipts, April 1945 box box 23 folder folder 6

Receipts, May 1945 box box 23 folder folder 7

Receipts, June 1945 box box 23 folder folder 8

Receipts, July 1945 box box 23 folder folder 9

Receipts, August 1945 box box 23 folder folder 10

Receipts, September 1945 box box 23 folder folder 11

Receipts, October 1945 box box 23 folder folder 12

Receipts, November 1945 box box 23 folder folder 13

Receipts, December 1945 box box 23 folder folder 14

USCHw-NCRPT, Finances box box 23 folder folder 15

[Voting Restrictions in the 13 Southern States: The Committee of Editors and Writers of the the South] box box 24 folder folder 1

Statistics, 1944-Current box box 24 folder folder 2

Senate, 1945-1946 box box 24 folder folder 3

Senate, 1945-1946 box box 24 folder folder 4

Senate, 1945-1946 box box 24 folder folder 5

Senate, 1945-1946 box box 24 folder folder 6

Action Letters, 1947 box box 24 folder folder 7

Report of Proceedings- Hearing Held Before Subcommittee of the Committee on the Judiciary, S.1280 box box 24 folder folder 8

House Action 1943, 78th Congress, H.R. 7 box box 25 folder folder 1

1944 Election Statistics box box 25 folder folder 2

House Action 1945, 79th Congress, H.R. 7 box box 25 folder folder 3

House Action 1943, 79th Congress, H.R. 7 box box 25 folder folder 4

Senate Action 1947 box box 25 folder folder 5

Senate Action 1947 box box 25 folder folder 6

Senate Action 1947 box box 25 folder folder 7

House Hearings, H.R. 29, July 1947, Copies of Testimony and More box box 25 folder folder 8

Senate Hearings, 1948 box box 25 folder folder 9

Constitutionality [H.R. 7, The Anti-Poll Tax Bill box box 26 folder folder 1

Legislative Bulletin box box 26 folder folder 2

Constitutionality [Miscellaneous About H.R. 7, The Anti-Poll Tax Bill box box 26 folder folder 3

Townsend Plan, 1943-1946 box box 26 folder folder 4

Wallace Committee, State Material- Minutes, Etc. box box 26 folder folder 5

Virginia Democratic Party Plan box box 26 folder folder 6

Appointment of Reps. in Congress box box 26 folder folder 7

Progressive Party- Arlington County Elections, 1949 box box 26 folder folder 8

Progressive Party- General Elections, 1949 box box 26 folder folder 9

Wires Sent During H.R. Senate Fight, July 30-31, 1946 box box 26 folder folder 10

Political Information, Candidates box box 26 folder folder 11

Misc. To Sort box box 26 folder folder 12

1946 Election Statistics box box 26 folder folder 13

Materials Used box box 26 folder folder 14

Resolutions on Poll Tax, Adopted, Suggested box box 27 folder folder 1

State Election Laws box box 27 folder folder 2

State Election Laws box box 27 folder folder 3

State Election Laws box box 27 folder folder 4

State Election Laws box box 27 folder folder 5

Court Cases box box 27 folder folder 6

Supreme Court Cases box box 27 folder folder 7

Poll Tax Pamphlets (1) box box 28 folder folder 1

Poll Tax Pamphlets (2) box box 28 folder folder 2

Poll Tax (Copies of Bills, Hearings and Reports) box box 28 folder folder 3

Poll Tax (Copies of Bills, Hearings and Reports) box box 28 folder folder 4

Poll Tax (Copies of Bills, Hearings and Reports) box box 28 folder folder 5

Poll Tax Hearings box box 28 folder folder 6

Poll Tax Hearings box box 28 folder folder 7

Press Releases box box 29 folder folder 1

Senate Action, 1944, 78th Congress, H.R. 7 box box 29 folder folder 2

Senate Action, 1944, 78th Congress, H.R. 7 box box 29 folder folder 3

Miscellaneous Articles box box 29 folder folder 4

Documents Relating to the North Atlantic Treaty box box 29 folder folder 5

Conference 2-3-45 box box 29 folder folder 6

Cloture Data box box 29 folder folder 7

Conference on Anti-Poll Tax Education, February 3, 1945 box box 29 folder folder 8